How important are privacy improvements to Bitcoin in the roadmap? How will second layers and atomic swaps help with this? When will Schnorr signatures / signature aggregation be added to Bitcoin? What are Taproot and Graftroot? Will it be done through a soft or hard fork? Should we keep transaction transparency instead of adding privacy features?

Watch Pieter Wuille’s presentation –
Schnorr signature BIP –

CORRECTION / CLARIFICATION: At 3:47, I mention that Schnorr signatures had to overcome “patent encumbrances” and guessed that the patent expired somewhere around 2010. The precise expiration date of the U.S. Patent (No. 4,995,082) was February 2008. At 4:22, I say that ECDSA and EC-Schnorr are based on the difficulty of solving the discrete logarithm problem over a prime-order field. While this is true for the digital signature algorithm (DSA), ECDSA and Schnorr are based on the discrete log problem over an elliptic curve group. (h/t Daira Hopwood)

These questions were part of the monthly live Patreon Q&A session in July and the Denver event as part of ‘The Internet of Money Tour’ at the Hilton Denver Inverness, which took place on July 28th and August 6th 2018 respectively. If you want early-access to talks and a chance to participate in the monthly live Q&As with Andreas, become a patron:

Worse than Useless: Financial Surveillance –
Money as a System-of-Control –
The Stories We Tell About Money –
Bitcoin: Privacy, Identity, Surveillance and Money –
ADISummit: Self-Sovereign Identity Panel –
How is fungibility tied to privacy? –
Public keys versus addresses –
Re-using addresses –
Coin selection and privacy –
Airdrop coins and privacy implications –
Wallet design and mass adoption –
How do I choose a wallet? –
Using paper wallets –
Exchanges, identity, and surveillance –
The price of losing privacy –
Layered scaling and privacy –
Lightning and onion routing –
What is the roadmap? –
SegWit and fork research –
MimbleWimble and Schnorr signatures –
Block capacity and embedded data –
Mixing services –
Borderless money –

Andreas M. Antonopoulos is a technologist and serial entrepreneur who has become one of the most well-known and respected figures in bitcoin.

Follow on Twitter: @aantonop

He is the author of two books: “Mastering Bitcoin,” published by O’Reilly Media and considered the best technical guide to bitcoin; “The Internet of Money,” a book about why bitcoin matters.





Translations of MASTERING BITCOIN:

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Music: “Unbounded” by Orfan (
Outro Graphics: Phneep (
Outro Art: Rock Barcellos (